¿Cuál es el significado místico de la estrella de David?

¿Cuál es el significado místico de la estrella de David?

El maguén David simboliza la conexión entre ambas dimensiones de Di-s, la Torá e Israel

Por Naftali Silberberg

El Zohar (3:73a) dice: “Existen tres nudos [tres entidades] que se conectan la una a la otra: el Santo Bendito Sea, la Torá e Israel”. Los judíos conectan sus almas con el creador mediante el estudio y la observancia de la Torá. El triángulo representa la conexión entre estas tres entidades.1

Cada una de ellas posee una dimensión interna (pnimiut) y una externa (jitzoniut). La Torá comprende enseñanzas exotéricas, como ser el Talmud y la ley judía, al igual que enseñanzas esotéricas como la cábala. La energía “revelada” de Di-s provee y permite la existencia de todas las cosas del mundo, pero su esencia está completamente oculta y trasciende a toda la creación. De manera similar, el alma (que es un reflejo de Di-s2 ) tiene un elemento revelado, aquella porción que se expresa dentro del cuerpo y le otorga vida, y una esencia que trasciende el cuerpo.

El doble triangulo de la estrella de David (maguén David) simboliza la conexión entre ambas dimensiones de Di-s, la Torá e Israel: el nivel externo del alma se conecta con la expresión externa de Di-s por medio del estudio de las partes exotéricas de la Tora; la esencia del alma se conecta con la esencia de Di-s por medio del estudio y puesta en práctica de las enseñanzas de la cábala.

Otra explicación:

La cábala nos enseña que Di-s creó el mundo con siete bloques espirituales: sus siete atributos “emocionales”. De tal forma, toda la creación es un reflejo de estos siete atributos fundacionales.

Ellos son: jésed (bondad), gevurá (severidad), tiféret (armonía), netzaj (perseverancia), hod (esplendor), iesod (cimiento), maljut (realeza).

Estos atributos se dividen en tres columnas: la derecha, la del centro y la izquierda:

Gevurá      Tiferet        Jesed

Hod            Iesod         Netzaj

Maljut

Del mismo modo, la estrella de David posee siete compartimientos: seis picos que sobresalen de un centro.

El extremo superior derecho es jésed.

El extremo superior izquierdo es gevurá.

El pico central superior es tiféret.

La cábala nos enseña que tiféret encuentra su fuente en kéter, la corona, que es infinitamente mayor que todos los atributos divinos que están vinculados a la búsqueda “mundana” de crear el mundo.

El extremo inferior derecho es netzaj.

El extremo inferior izquierdo es hod.

El centro es iesod. Iesod es “cimiento” y como tal, todos los demás atributos tienen su raíz en este atributo y se desprenden de él.

El triángulo inferior de la estrella que desciende del centro es maljut, el atributo que absorbe la energía de los seis atributos superiores y los utiliza para descender y crearlo todo, y para “reinar” sobre ellos.

Notas al Pie
1. El hecho de que en un triángulo cada uno de los tres extremos esté conectado a los otros dos demuestra que el alma judía está, en sí misma, atada a Di-s. El estudio de la Torá y su observancia no crea una conexión entre el judío y Di-s, simplemente la saca a la luz.
2. Tal como se expresa en Job (19:26): “Desde mi carne puedo percibir a Di-s”.

Según tomado de,http://www.es.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/3020679/jewish/Cul-es-el-significado-mstico-de-la-estrella-de-David.htm el viernes, 28 de agosto de 2015.

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Baruch Spinoza Was Not a Great Jewish Role Model

Baruch Spinoza Was Not a Great Jewish Role Model

August 14, 2015 11:57 am

Author: Jeremy Rosen

Baruch (Benedict) Spinoza (1632-1677) was one of the greatest philosophers. Not only that, but he was possibly the most honest and moral of them all. He was a gentle, if prickly, principled human being who led an ethical, modest life unaffected by money or fame. He won a court decision over his father’s estate and promptly handed it all over to his estranged sister. He turned down an offer of a professorship and life pension from a German prince, because he feared he might not be able to say what he thought.

He was born Jewish and had a good Jewish education. Technically, Spinoza remained Jewish even though he was put under a ban (Cherem) by the Amsterdam Jewish community. He never converted to another religion, but he was given a Christian burial, and his remains are buried in the churchyard of the Nieuwe Kerk in The Hague. What led to his ban (Cherem is not strictly the same as Excommunication, which has very specific Catholic theological ramifications) were his views on the Bible, on God, and on religious authority. They were as much a threat to the Catholic Church and Protestantism as they were to Judaism. There is some dispute as to how much pressure from the church was brought to bear on the Jewish community in Amsterdam to disown him. All his writing was put on the Catholic Index of Forbidden Books.

 

In the religious and political turmoil of the Netherlands of the day, Spinoza courted the opposition of all religions. The so-called Eighty Years’ War, from 1568-1648, was an attempt by Catholicism, in its struggle with Protestantism, to retain its grip over Northern European countries. The Netherlands ended up being divided into a Protestant North and a Catholic South. It was still divided over religion in Spinoza’s day, and the Enlightenment was only beginning to sprout its controversial shoots. Only a handful of freethinking intellectuals, such as his teacher Van den Enden (another one whose books were banned by the church) and the brothers Johan & Cornelis de Witt, supported him. Even then, the situation was so tense and volatile that the much respected Johan de Witt was lynched by a mob of religious fanatics.

The case for Spinoza is that he came from Marrano stock and was subjected to all kinds of alien ideas, and the family had only recently reentered the observant Jewish community. But he had been taught by several distinguished and actually open minded rabbis, including the great Rabbi Menasseh Ben Israel, a friend of the legal giant Grotius and the artist Rembrandt. Spinoza’s scandalous views included denying the Mosaic single authorship of the Bible, rejecting theological ideas of life after death, and describing God as the sum of the universe (an idea that can be found in the Kabbalah, too). These are the sorts of ideas that nowadays can be found as topics of debate and discussion in more open Orthodox circles. But it is true that if the Amsterdam community was the equivalent of the Charedi community today, he would certainly have been branded a heretic.

Spinoza did not initially intend to leave the Jewish community. He recited kaddish for a year for his father. He donated to the Amsterdam Talmud Torah and other charities. It was only when he was driven out of Amsterdam that he cut his ties with the Jewish community altogether. If his philosophy in general is controversial, he frankly disliked all religious authority, all blatant exercises of political power, and was very much attuned to the new intellectual world that wanted to separate state and religion, enthroning reason above all else. So the case for his defense is that he was a reluctant rebel and simply alienated by intransigent communities, both Jewish and non-Jewish.

But there is another angle. In his great religious polemic the Tractatus Theologicus-Politicus, he questions the Mosaic authorship of the Torah, and he claims that it is no longer binding on Jews. It is true that he denigrates all religions as having failed their founders. But he sees the prophecy of Moses as being of an inferior level to that of Jesus. He considers the meeting of minds that characterized the relationship of God to Jesus (as described in Christian theology) as being of a higher and purely intellectual order. It has been suggested that he said this only to curry favor with the Christian authorities and try to gain the support of the church.

But if we assume that these were really his views, then I can perfectly understand not only the offense taken by the Amsterdam community but by Jews nowadays too. So those who might argue for his posthumous reinstatement are just wide of the mark and clearly have not read his philosophy.

A criterion for belonging to the Jewish religious community is to regard the Torah as the ultimate prophetic communication, whether it was “face to face” or “mouth to mouth” or indeed symbolically. This is what differentiates the Jewish religion from the other monotheistic religions. To deny this is to “deny the rock from whence you were hewn.”

In the enlightened world we inhabit, we do not insist on people having to belong to one religion or another. If we are enlightened practitioners of our own religions, we will not object to people finding their points on its spectrum. We approve of freedom of thought and mind when it comes to making personal choices. But we cannot expect the sort of relativism that considers all views of equal significance or all Jews as being an integral part of the Jewish people, regardless of what they think or how they behave. Sadly, Spinoza ended up not only rejecting Judaism, but giving up any attachment to his people.

I can certainly sympathize with his sense of alienation, and this is consistent with his philosophy. But you can no more call Spinoza a great Jew than you can Karl Marx. They might be great people who happened to have been born Jewish, but that is a different matter altogether. If the Cherem in Amsterdam was based purely on his theological views, and given that in those pre-emancipation years it was only religion that defined a Jew, then clearly Spinoza belonged and belongs to the rarefied world of philosophy. He is not a proponent of religion in general or Judaism in particular. Quite the contrary.

Were he alive today, I would like to think he would have been head of the philosophy department at the Hebrew University where, I am delighted to say, religious parties exercise no influence whatsoever. However, it is much more likely that he would have joined Noam Chomsky!

http://www.algemeiner.com/2015/08/14/baruch-spinoza-was-not-a-great-jewish-role-model/

Who Are You to Call Me a Goy? The Dawn of Judaism as a Personal Choice

Who Are You to Call Me a Goy? The Dawn of Judaism as a Personal Choice

After a millennium and a half as the gatekeepers to being Jewish, the rabbis and their conversion courts are in danger of becoming quaint throwbacks.
Let’s say your parents aren’t Jewish, but you feel Jewish and want to be a Jew. Who could stop you? The rabbis, the bureaucrats? How could they deny something that you know to be true, with every fiber of your being? They tell you that if you want to be Jewish, you must convert, but that makes no sense to you, because you are sure that you’re already Jewish.

To many Jews, whatever their level of belief or observance, the argument may sound absurd: You can’t just be Jewish. Either you are born Jewish, or you have to go through some official process to be recognized as Jewish.

But in an age where society is gradually coming to accept that a person’s gender is not necessarily defined by the circumstances of his or her physiology at birth, and that steps can be taken to increase physical congruence if desired, the idea that external validation is needed for one’s choice of religion seems increasingly anachronistic.

I’m not aware of any research or surveys on the subject, but I have no doubt that a growing number of people consider themselves Jews without having undergone any kind of conversion. What’s more, most of their friends, relatives and neighbors regard them as Jews as well.

Over the years I’ve met many such Jews: immigrants to Israel and their children, who are not recognized by any rabbinate but are convinced that by living in the Jewish state, paying taxes and above all by putting their lives in danger serving in its army, they have earned the right not to have their Judaism questioned.

There are people, mainly outside of Israel, who chose to identify as Jews after they researched their genealogy and discovered a Jewish ancestor. Others married a Jew and accepted their spouse’s faith. Still others became captivated by the beauty of the Torah, the Talmud, the Hebrew language (or Yiddish or Ladino) — by chance, or destiny — and adopted this knowledge and culture. As one such student told me, in perfect Hebrew, “Torah is my life, I don’t need a rabbi to tell me I’m Jewish. I just know I am.”

The civil war that broke out this week within Jewish orthodoxy after a group of Israeli rabbis broke with the Chief Rabbinate and established an alternative, “friendlier” conversion court, could catalyze forces that are already pulling the oldest stream of Judaism — the most dominant one in Israel — in opposite directions.

Either side in this religious, but also very much political, conflict could still back down so as to reestablish an uneasy status quo. In any event, the conversion issue is only one of the ticking time bombs under the fissure that will ultimately tear apart Orthodox Jewry, if the movement is not irrevocably split already.

It is not only this current round of bickering and power plays among the rabbis. The six decades-plus of theological, political and legal arguments fought between the Orthodox movement on one hand and the Reform and Conservative movements on the other, in the Knesset, the Supreme Court and the Israeli and Jewish Diaspora media over “who is a Jew” are growing increasingly irrelevant. As long as the religious parties have the power to dictate the state’s recognition of Jewish identity, its subsidization of religious education and its control of marriage, divorce, burial, much of the food industry through kashrut restrictions and so many other parts of civic life, this debate will matter. But as more and more alternatives become available and individuals become more self-aware and confident in making their own cultural and religious decisions, the rabbis will be scrabbling for a rapidly devaluating currency.

The rebel Orthodox rabbis realize this. Connected as they are to a much wider cross-section of Israeli society than their ultra-Orthodox rivals, they are fully aware that the great majority of the approximately 350,000 Israelis and their children who emigrated from the former Soviet Union under the Law of Return, only to be told on arrival that they weren’t considered Jewish enough to get married in Israel, are not particularly motivated to go through a long and arduous conversion process.

For years these rabbis hoped that a clamor from this “Russian” community would force the rabbinate to liberalize its hidebound religious courts, and now they’re trying to do it themselves.

They may be fighting a battle which for all purposes is over. Most of those “Russians” simply don’t care anymore. Many of them have lived in Israel now for nearly a quarter of a century, or were born here. As far as they are concerned, they are Israeli and Jewish and no rabbi can tell them otherwise. Nor have more than a few opted for the more user-friendly Reform and Conservative conversion programs.

The Jewish Agency has come out in support of the rebel rabbis. Naturally the organization is anxious that prospective Jews and Israelis will not be deterred because of the obstinate Chief Rabbinate. But their endorsement played only a tiny role, if any, in this saga. The rabbis didn’t need the blessing of the Jewish Agency, and would have gone ahead even if it had expressed its disapproval.

Writing in Haaretz this week, Or Kashti revealed how the organization was totally sidelined by the grandiose Initiative for the Future of the Jewish People of Diaspora Affairs Minister Naftali Bennett, which will receive 190 million shekels ($50 million) in state funding. The Jewish Agency, once Israel’s government-in-waiting, is now increasingly marginalized in every field of operations, pushed out by more dynamic, efficient, well-funded and often ruthless outfits such as Chabad, Nefesh b’Nefesh, Birthright Israel and Rabbi Yechiel Eckstein’s International Fellowship of Christians and Jews.

Never before in Jewish history has there been so much competition, and so much money spent, on trying to connect Jews to each other. Ironically, this hyperactivity is becoming increasingly obsolete, as just about every Jew in the world today is free to emigrate, to practice whatever faith they choose and to learn and communicate about any form of Judaism they like, using the Internet.

Judaism began as an aggressively proselytizing religion, and remained so until Christian and Muslim persecution forced the rabbis to change tack and to set up barriers. As it was, few wanted to join the ranks of a persecuted minority. Now, after a millennium and a half as the gatekeepers to being Jewish, the rabbis and their conversion courts are in danger of becoming quaint throwbacks. For better or worse, we are entering an era where being Jewish is matter of individual choice.

http://www.haaretz.com/blogs/jerusalem-babylon/.premium-1.671089?utm_content=Who+are+you+to+call+me+a+goy%3F+The+dawn+of+Judaism+as+a+personal+choice&utm_medium=hdc+Weekend&utm_source=email&utm_campaign=newsletter?date=1439584022596

Shavei Israel publica un nuevo libro: “¿Tiene usted raíces judías?”

Shavei Israel publica un nuevo libro: “¿Tiene usted raíces judías?”

Brian Blum

כריכה¿Alguna vez se preguntó si tiene raíces judías? ¿Tiene su familia tradiciones extrañas que no sabe de dónde provienen? ¿Su nombre es similar a un nombre judío antiguo?

Shavei Israel está aquí para ayudarlo. Hemos publicado nuestra primera guía práctica para descubrir sus raíces judías. El nuevo libro de 109 páginas, se encuentra disponible en forma impresa y como e-book, su nombre es “¿Tiene usted raíces judías?”.

Sus nueve capítulos cubren las más importantes preguntas que alguien que comienza a explorar sus raíces puede tener. Hay discusiones sobre cómo conducir una búsqueda genealógica (incluyendo cómo acceder a los registros de la inquisición), cuáles apellidos son los más comunes en las diferentes diásporas judías alrededor del mundo (si se encuentra en Palma de Mallorca y su apellido es Segura, probablemente tenga raíces judías), además de información sobre costumbres judías “ocultas” (tales como el encendido de velas, costumbres de duelo y el horneado de jalot), organizadas a nivel geográfico e histórico.

A lo largo del texto también podrá encontrar historias personales para proveer inspiración y ejemplos prácticos – si ellos pudieron hacerlo, entonces usted también puede. Hay preguntas para guiar a los lectores en su propio proceso y cada capítulo comienza con un pasuk – una cita de la Torá.

Al final del libro, hemos incluido un apéndice escrito por Genie Milgrom, el cual explica cómo realizar una investigación genealógica y en los archivos de la inquisición. Milgrom es la presidenta de la Sociedad de Estudios Cripto-Judaicos y de la Sociedad Genealógica de Miami, y brinda varias conferencias al año sobre genealogía.

La primera versión del libro es en español, especial para Bnei Anusim de España y América Latina, donde se encuentra un gran número de personas interesadas en descubrir sus raíces. Pero los ejemplos del libro, son aplicables para cualquier persona que busca sus raíces. Las próximas publicaciones serán en portugués e italiano, y se referirán especialmente a los Bnei Anusim de dichos países. Futuras ediciones saldrán en polaco, ruso e inglés.

El libro fue escrito por el director de Shavei Israel, Michael Freund, y por el director educativo de Shavei, el Rabino Eliahu Birnbaum, con la ayuda del Rabino Nissan Ben Avraham, emisario de Shavei Israel en España y Tziviá Kusminsky, directora del departamento de Bnei Anusim y los judíos escondidos de Polonia.

El libro, el cual estuvo dos años en preparación, se encuentra disponible en forma gratuita como e-book. Descargue hoy su copia aquí. Algunas copias ya han sido distribuidas en El Salvador donde Michael Freund y el Rabino Birnbaum realizaron un shabatón hace unas semanas atrás.

Puede recibir más información sobre el libro en nuestro video de promoción en YouTube. Si cree que puede tener raíces judías o está interesado en seguir el despertar de personas de origen judío que Shavei Israel ha estado apoyando desde sus comienzos, “¿Tiene usted raíces judías?” es un libro obligatorio para su biblioteca.

Segun tomado de,http://casa-anusim.org/2015/08/12/shavei-israel-publica-un-nuevo-libro-tiene-usted-raices-judias/

New Route to Conversion Challenges Israel’s Ultra-Orthodox Establishment

By JODI RUDORENAUG. August 11, 2015

JERUSALEM — The newest combatants in Israel’s raging battle over ultra-Orthodox control of Jewish law and institutions are six children, ages 1 to 11, who were converted to Judaism on Monday by Orthodox rabbis operating outside the official system.

The conversions were not expected to be recognized by Israel’s Chief Rabbinate or by the Interior Ministry. But after the Israeli government bowed to pressure last month from the ultra-Orthodox, also called Haredim, and reneged on a plan to ease conversion, a group of respected rabbis has expanded its private conversion court in what analysts see as a significant challenge to the establishment.

An article in the daily newspaper Yediot Aharonot said, “The initiative reflects a deep crack in the wall of the religious rabbinate that is going to be impossible to fix” and could lead to the institution’s collapse.

Ben Caspit, a columnist in the newspaper Maariv, called for a stampede to the new conversion courts, describing them as “perhaps a one-time opportunity to save ourselves from the closed and dark ghetto in which the Haredim are trying to imprison us.”

At issue is the status of about 300,000 Israeli citizens, mostly descendants of immigrants from the former Soviet Union, who consider themselves Jewish but require conversion in order to marry because their lineage is not clear. The conversion of children has been particularly problematic, with Haredi rabbis generally requiring that parents prove their religious observance.

The conversion debate, which has also enraged many American Jewish leaders, is part of a broader struggle between Haredim and virtually all other Israeli Jewish groups, from the avowedly secular to the so-called religious Zionists, or modern Orthodox. The Chief Rabbinate is also facing a challenge to its monopoly on kosher certification, with a nonprofit group recently issuing its own stamp of approval to about two dozen restaurants in Jerusalem and in Tel Aviv.

Ultra-Orthodox leaders managed last week to persuade a new cafe in Independence Park in Jerusalem not to open on Saturdays, the Jewish Sabbath, by threatening the kosher certification of its related coffee business. They have also vowed to demonstrate outside a 16-screen cinema opening in the city this week because it will show films on Saturdays.

“The more dominant the ultra-Orthodox sector becomes, both numerically and politically, it’s challenging the status quo of Israel” because “their margin for flexibility and for compromise are practically nonexistent,” said Yohanan Plesner, president of the Israel Democracy Institute, who wrote an article on Monday calling for Israel to give equal recognition and funding to Reform and Conservative rabbis and institutions.

“Their view,” he added, referring to the ultra-Orthodox authorities, “drives a wedge between Israel as a state and many in the Jewish community in North America, but also drives a wedge between the rank and file of many Israelis and their Jewish identity.”
Daniel Bar, the spokesman for the Chief Rabbinate, declined to comment on the new conversion court, but Moshe Gafni, an ultra-Orthodox member of the Israeli Parliament, called it “a grave thing,” from “a legal point of view and also from an ideological view.”

“There is law in Israel,” Mr. Gafni said in an interview on Israel Radio on Tuesday, saying the conversion of the children “borders on the criminal.” The rabbis involved, he said, “simply want to replace the Chief Rabbinate.”

Ziv Maor, who was the rabbinate’s spokesman until March, said that unlike the alternative kosher certificates, the conversion courts presented a severe threat to the current system because they dealt with central issues of identity.

If people converted by private courts petition the Supreme Court for recognition, as expected, Mr. Maor said, the court will also have to consider conversions done by non-Orthodox rabbis, whose interpretations of Jewish law vary widely. Those converts would then presumably be permitted to marry, something Mr. Maor called a “disaster.”

“It will be a collapse of the entire system,” he said. “The question of whether or not the Chief Rabbinate of Israel, the official religious establishment of Israel, has control of three issues — marriage, divorce and conversion — will eventually determine if the State of Israel is a Jewish state in name only or in fact.”

Rabbi David Stav, who is modern Orthodox and two years ago ran unsuccessfully to be one of Israel’s two chief rabbis, said the new conversion court was a necessity after the government’s reversal on the conversion bill.

He said 4,500 children are born each year to Israeli families whose Judaism is not recognized, “boys and girls who are going to the university, they are going to the army — if they are not converted, there will be an assimilation crisis in Israel.”

Rabbi Stav, who attended the conversion ceremony on Monday, said the children’s parents had been required to sign papers to prove they understood that the rite would not be recognized by the government or by the Chief Rabbinate, even though it had been performed according to Jewish law.

“It is recognized by God,” he noted. “Eventually, there will be no other way but to recognize them officially.”

Según tomada de,http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/12/world/middleeast/orthodox-jews-conversions-israel.html?emc=edit_tnt_20150812&nlid=64717990&tntemail0=y el miércoles, 12 de agosto de 2015.

Enigmáticas inscripciones aparecidas en Jerusalén cautivan a los arqueólogos

Hallazgos arqueológicos en Jerusalén los hay casi con cada nueva construcción.

La mayoría de ellos -monedas, piezas de cerámica, herramientas o pequeños

candelabros- pasan desapercibidos. No así las inscripciones halladas recientemente

en un barrio del sur de la ciudad santa.

Las extrañas anotaciones, halladas en el interior de un antigua “mikve”

(baño ritual judío), han despertado la curiosidad de los principales

arqueólogos que estudian el pasado de Jerusalén, ahora abocados

a descifrar la inusual combinación de símbolos y palabras.

“Pueden ser desde un simple grafiti a un profundo mensaje espiritual,

pasando por una descuidada decoración o una llamada de emergencia

en tiempos de necesidad”, dice el investigador Alex Wiegmann,

director de la Autoridad de Antigüedades de Israel (IAI) para este lugar.

El hallazgo, de hace unos 2.000 años, fue descubierto en un extremo

del barrio de Arnona durante la construcción de un complejo de

jardines de infantes y junto a un nuevo complejo de torres residenciales

que han requerido profundas excavaciones.

A unos cuatro metros por debajo de la superficie, los arqueólogos

que supervisaban la obra por exigencia de la legislación local descubrieron

hace dos meses la boca de una cavidad enyesada que fecharon en el siglo I,

el final del período del Segundo Templo.

Los baños rituales judíos, empleados hasta hoy día para la purificación

espiritual, existían en Jerusalén por decenas, pero el de Arnona no solo

es uno de los más grandes sino que destaca por la colección de dibujos

e inscripciones que sus usuarios nos dejaron.

“Hay varias interpretaciones porque no se han conservado enteras

y la caligrafía es descuidada. Puede que, simplemente, sean nombres

de personas, o que se trate de simbología para bendiciones de parte

de una fuerza sobrenatural o, incluso, de maldiciones”, matiza Wiegmann,

quien dice no tener la más mínima pista sobre los autores.

Están en el interior de una cavidad a la que se accedía por una antesala

flanqueada por bancos de piedra, una suerte de sala de espera para

acceder al baño, junto al que también se ha descubierto una prensa

para hacer vino.

La cavidad estaba cuidadosamente enyesada, una cubierta que los

arqueólogos han extraído en placas para someterlas a exhaustivos

exámenes de laboratorio y encontrar restos microscópicos que

ayuden a completar las letras y palabras.

Según el arqueólogo, están en arameo transliterado al hebreo

en un distintivo tipo de letra cursiva, una costumbre de finales

del período del Segundo Templo, el bíblico centro de culto judío

que estaba situado apenas cuatro kilómetros más al norte y

que fue destruido en el año 70 por los romanos, al mando

del general (y luego emperador) Tito.

También los dibujos y símbolos de las paredes son un enigma,

sobre todo por la variedad y la concentración.

“No sabemos su propósito, si los hizo una o más personas,

si fue una expresión espontánea o alguien los pidió, si trataban

de trasladar un profundo mensaje espiritual o eran una petición

de ayuda ante un evento traumático”, agrega Wiegmann en

referencia a la revuelta judía contra Roma entre el 66 y el 70.

Dibujados unos con hollín y otros con barro, algunos incluso

grabados en las paredes con algún objeto afilado, sus misteriosos

autores representaron un conjunto de palmeras y pequeñas plantas.

Más curiosos son el detalle de una embarcación, que pudo ser

dibujada por algún viajero llegado allende los mares -embarcaciones

han aparecido en otros lugares de Jerusalén a pesar de no tener

mar- o de alguien que apelaba con ella a la suprema aspiración

de la “salvación” divina y la “redención”, a decir del arqueólogo.

“¡Todo es una incógnita! En los próximos meses quizás los

expertos puedan descifrar de qué se trata”, afirma.

Trasladados a un museo para su análisis y conservación,

otro de los interrogantes más curiosos es el dibujo de lo que

parece una “menorá”, el candelabro de siete brazos

convertido en símbolo nacional judío.

Por aquella época los judíos se abstenían de dibujar ese

objeto sagrado custodiado en el Templo hasta el expolio

de la ciudad por Tito, y si ya lo hacían no era en un baño ritual.

Esta anormal mezcla de objetos altamente espirituales y,

a la vez, seculares confunde a los investigadores no menos

que la relación entre los dibujos y las indescifrables inscripciones.

Situado sobre el antiguo camino que unía Jerusalén con

Hebrón y a unos 300 metros de los restos del que fue un

consolidado asentamiento a las puertas del desierto de

Judea, la “mikvé” recién descubierta pudo pertenecer a

alguna granja o edificación extramuros, como indican

unos túneles descubiertos en la misma zona y que,

por ahora, no serán investigados. EFE

Segun tomado de http://www.aurora-israel.co.il/articulos/israel/Newsletter/66589/?utm_source=Noticias+diarias+new+Martes-TEA&utm_medium=11-08-2015%202da%20edic, el lunes 10 de agosto de 2015.

¿Los judíos creen en el infierno?

¿Los judíos creen en el infierno?

Los místicos del judaísmo describen un lugar espiritual denominado el “Gueinom”

Estimado rabino:

¿Los judíos creen en el infierno? No es que esté planeando algún viaje a ese lugar, pero he escuchado opiniones diversas acerca de su existencia.

Respuesta:

Los judíos creen en un tipo de infierno, pero no es aquel que se encuentra en los dibujos animados o en las historietas. El infierno no es un castigo en el sentido convencional, sino, por el contrario, una expresión de gran bondad.

Los místicos del judaísmo describen un lugar espiritual denominado el “Gueinom”, cuya traducción más común es “Infierno”. Pero resultaría más preciso traducir este término como la “Suprema Lavadora”, porque así es como funciona. La forma en la que nuestra alma se limpia en el Gueinom es similar a como lavamos nuestras ropas en una lavadora.

Si nos detuviéramos a pensar por un instante y pudiéramos ponernos en el lugar de nuestras medias, por ejemplo, claramente no nos resultaría grato ser arrojados al agua hirviendo y dar vueltas a lo loco durante media hora. Creeríamos que sin dudas alguien no nos quiere en absoluto. Sin embargo, solo luego de haber lavado bien las medias es que podemos volver a usarlas.

No arrojamos nuestra ropa a la lavadora a modo de castigo. La sometemos a algo que parece duro y doloroso para que vuelva a estar limpia y así poder usarla nuevamente. El calor intenso del agua afloja la suciedad y la fuerza centrífuga hace que se desprenda de la ropa por completo. Lejos de dañarlas, les estamos haciendo un favor al someterlas a este proceso.

Lo mismo ocurre con nuestra alma. Cada acto que realizamos en esta vida deja marcas en ella. Las cosas buenas la resaltan y elevan, mientras que las malas acciones dejan manchas que deben ser removidas. Si, al final de nuestros días, dejamos este mundo sin haber enmendado las malas acciones que cometimos, nuestra alma no pude acceder a su lugar de descanso en las alturas. Debemos pasar por el ciclo de lavado primero. Nuestra alma es sometida a un calor espiritual intenso para quitarle todo posible residuo y prepararla así para entrar al Cielo.

Por supuesto, este proceso puede evitarse. Si verdaderamente lamentamos los errores que cometimos y los enmendamos con aquellos a los que hemos lastimado, podremos irnos de este mundo “con la ropa limpia”.

Es por ello que nuestros sabios dicen: “arrepiéntete hasta un día antes de partir de este mundo”. Y ¿qué hacemos si no tenemos la certeza de cuándo será nuestro último día en este mundo? Entonces, debemos arrepentirnos hoy mismo.

POR ARON MOSS
El rabino Aron Moss enseña Cábala, Talmud y Judaísmo en general en Sydney, Australia.
Segun tomado de, http://www.es.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/3005393/jewish/Los-judos-creen-en-el-infierno.htm el viernes, 7 de agosto de 2015.