Jerusalem, Ben Gurión y Jánuca: ¿Acaso la fecha es más que una coincidencia?

Jerusalem, Ben Gurión y Jánuca: ¿Acaso la fecha es más que una coincidencia?

Cuando ocurren eventos importantes en fechas idénticas, Dios nos guiña el ojo

por

La semana pasada todo el mundo se sorprendió por el anuncio que hizo el presidente de los Estados Unidos cumpliendo oficialmente con su promesa de la campaña electoral y reconociendo a Jerusalem como la capital de Israel.

Pero cuando observé el calendario hebreo comprendí algo mucho más profundo que una declaración política. Hace mucho tiempo, los eruditos de la Torá nos enseñaron que con el fin de la profecía luego del cierre de la Biblia, Dios tiene otra manera de comunicarse con la humanidad. Esta forma es a través del secreto del tiempo: la unión de eventos que ocurren exactamente en la misma fecha dejan claro que deben ser entendidos como mensajes Divinos. Han dicho que la coincidencia es la forma en que Dios elige mantenerse anónimo. En otras palabras, es la manera en que Dios pone a prueba nuestra habilidad de reconocer el rol del Todopoderoso en la dirección de hechos destacados de la historia.

Estoy seguro de que el presidente desconoce el enorme significado del día que escogió para proclamar el cambio histórico en la política de los Estados Unidos con respecto al estatus de Jerusalem. En el calendario hebreo, cuando los Estados Unidos finalmente reconocieron lo que el rey David santificó hace miles de años y lo que el pueblo judío nunca dejó de recordar en sus plegarias diarias, era el 19 de kislev. En este mismo día, el 19 de kislev de 1949, el primer ministro David Ben Gurión, apenas un año después del establecimiento del estado, escribió y subsecuentemente anunció que el gobierno de Israel unánimemente había acordado que Jerusalem sería la única capital del estado de Israel.

La aparente coincidencia de eventos precisamente el mismo día sugiere una participación Divina que tiene un precedente en otro momento importante de la historia judía, también conectado con el mes de kislev así como con Jerusalem.

Jánuca comienza el 25 de kislev. Varios comentaristas señalan que el nombre atribuido a esta festividad alude al significado de la fecha en la cual ocurrió. La palabra Jánuca está compuesta de dos palabras hebreas: janu, descansaron, es decir que completaron su tarea de reconquistar el Templo, y jaf hei, las letras que corresponden al día 25, o sea el 25 del mes.

¿Qué tiene de especial esta fecha? Los macabeos lucharon las batallas, pero fue Dios quien desde atrás de la escena, decidió que su éxito finalmente tuviera lugar el 25 de kislev, exactamente el mismo día en que había comenzado años antes la construcción del Segundo Templo, tal como lo evidencia el libro profético de Jagai (Capitulo 2:10, 15 y 18). Cuando los sirios griegos, en su esfuerzo por erradicar el judaísmo, profanaron el Templo con ídolos, no ofrecieron sacrificios paganos hasta… Sí, lo adivinaron, hasta el 25 de kislev (Ver Macabeos 1:54-59).

Tres años después de que los judíos reconquistaran el Templo, sacaran los ídolos y reconstruyeran sus utensilios, finalmente, “por coincidencia” cumplieron con la mitzvá de volver a encender la menorá el 25 de kislev con una vasija de aceite que parecía ser suficiente sólo para un día, pero que milagrosamente ardió durante ocho días.

Los macabeos fueron proclamados los héroes debido a sus actos poderosos, pero claramente Dios fue el responsable del milagro de la victoria de “muchos en manos de unos pocos, impuros en manos de puros, malvados en manos de justos, rebeldes en manos de aquellos que se dedican a la Torá”.

La santidad de Jerusalem fue preservada a través de los milagros de Jánuca. El rol de Dios en la historia es confirmado por el nombre mismo de la festividad que nos recuerda el mensaje del tiempo: la aparente coincidencia de fechas idénticas en la cual ocurrieron grandes eventos es la forma en la cual Dios se sigue comunicando con nosotros, para revelar Su continua participación en la historia de nuestro pueblo.

Ese fue el mensaje del 25 de kislev hace muchos años. Y yo creo que ese es también el mensaje del 19 de kislev de la semana pasada.

El mensaje Divino es claro. La visión de Isaías de paz universal figura prominentemente sobre los muros de las Naciones Unidas: “Él juzgará entre las naciones y asentará sus disputas. Convertirán sus espadas en rejas de arados y sus lanzas en podaderas. Ninguna nación levantará su espada contra otra nación ni se entrenarán para la guerra”.

Prominentemente allí están ausentes las últimas palabras de Isaías: “Porque de Sion saldrá la Torá y la palabra de Dios desde Jerusalem”.

En el mes de Jánuca esperamos que haya comenzado el proceso que convertirá en realidad la profecía completa.

Según tomado de, http://www.aishlatino.com/iymj/mj/Jerusalem-Ben-Gurion-y-Januca-Acaso-la-fecha-es-mas-que-una-coincidencia.html?s=mm

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Recognizing Jerusalem Is the First Step Toward Peace

Recognizing Jerusalem Is the First Step Toward Peace

avatarby Mitchell Bard

A view of Jerusalem. Photo: Berthold Werner / Wikimedia Commons.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contrary to the hysterical reactions around the world, President Trump’s decision to ignore naysayers and recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital may be the most important contribution to the prospects for Israeli-Palestinian peace that any American leader could have made. As the president correctly noted, he has broken with the failed policies of the past — but many of his leading critics were responsible for those failures.

It is a mystery why anyone is listening to the kvetching of the foreign policy establishment, especially former State Department officials, who have a nearly 70-year record of failure in the region. They have been so consistently wrong in their evaluations of the area, and misguided in their approaches to peace, that it is irresponsible for the media to give their opinions credence.

We keep hearing that the peace process is now dead — as though it were alive prior to Trump’s announcements. For those who were asleep for the duration of Barack Obama’s administration, here is a reminder: Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas refused to negotiate for the last eight years. This, despite Obama being perhaps the most pro-Palestinian president in history, convincing Israel to freeze settlement construction for 10 months and exerting one-sided pressure on Israel.

The single greatest obstacle to peace is the Palestinian leadership’s 80-year refusal to accept any compromise that acknowledges the existence of a Jewish state in the Middle East. Jerusalem has nothing to do with their irredentism. It is simply inconceivable to them that a Jewish state should exist in the Islamic heartland, or that Jews should be allowed to rule over Muslims. They have made no secret that they see the creation of a Palestinian state based on the 1949 Armistice lines, with Jerusalem as its capital, as nothing more than the first stage in a long-term strategy of destroying Israel. Hamas says it explicitly. Meanwhile, Fatah — under Abbas’ leadership –expresses it symbolically in its emblem, Palestinian Authority maps and its education system, which depicts a Palestinian state encompassing all of what is now Israel.

It’s starting to sound like a plan. Since the beginning of the Oslo “peace process,” it has been assumed that Israel…

The reason that the recognition of Jerusalem is a potential game changer is that it was a necessary step to disabuse the Palestinians of the fantasy that they will ever be permitted to establish a capital in Jerusalem and redivide the city. Israel is never going to give up its historic capital, or control over Judaism’s holiest sites. Until that sinks into the Palestinian consciousness, there is never any chance of a peace agreement.

The uncomfortable truth that the Palestinians and their supporters refuse to acknowledge is that they have no claim to Jerusalem. They simply demand a capital in the city based on nothing more than a childlike desire to seize something they want — something that belongs to someone else. Jerusalem has never been the capital of an Arab state; in fact, it was considered a backwater under Muslim rule. By contrast, the Jewish connection to Jerusalem dates back 3,000 years. Jews yearned to return to their capital and prayed in its direction for centuries. Jews have also comprised the majority of the population since the late 19th century.

The fact that Jerusalem is a site of Muslim reverence provides no basis for the Palestinian claim to the city. While the entire city of Jerusalem is holy to the Jewish people, only the Al-Aqsa Mosque is religiously significant in Islam. Most Palestinians are Muslims — but that does not give them any legal, moral or historical right to sovereignty over Jerusalem, and it gives them no greater connection to the city than any other Muslims.

The only rationale for entertaining the idea of a Palestinian presence in Jerusalem is essentially capitulating to blackmail: if Israel does not accept Palestinian demands, there will be violence. This was the same argument that held up the US recognition of Jerusalem for so long — fear of provoking unrest. But Trump finally had the courage to declare that US policy will no longer be held hostage by threats from terrorists.

Coercion only works to an extent with Israel. Because Israelis do not want eternal conflict with the Palestinians, they are prepared to compromise on Jerusalem — but not to divide the city or give up control of the parts of East and West Jerusalem that they care most about. The president essentially endorsed that position. Rather than preclude any agreement, however, the new US position on Jerusalem forces those Palestinians interested in peace to moderate their views.

In fact, they don’t have to radically change their position; they need only to return to a plan that was once endorsed by Abbas in talks with Yossi Beilin of Israel’s Labor Party. Their idea was to establish the capital of “Palestine” in a part of Jerusalem known as Abu Dis. Few people are aware of this, but the Palestinians were prepared enough to accept this solution that they built a parliament building in the city.

Since Abu Dis is within the boundaries of Jerusalem, the Palestinians can honestly say that their capital is in Jerusalem. Meanwhile, Israel can say that its capital is in Jerusalem, and maintain control over the parts of the city that contain Judaism’s holy places and its government institutions. All the non-Jewish sacred sites would remain free and accessible to all — as they are today. The Palestinians would have to give up the dream of flying their flag over the Temple Mount and Israel would have to accept a Palestinian presence in what they would prefer to be an undivided city. Worse, Israel’s capital, major population centers and international airport would be within rocket range of West Bank terrorists.

This is not a perfect solution — but that is the nature of compromise.

Recognition of Jerusalem was a necessary but not sufficient step to fully disabuse the Palestinians of their fantasies. Trump should take the additional step of formalizing the position expressed by George W. Bush in his April 14, 2004, letter to Ariel Sharon: “In light of new realities on the ground, including already existing major Israeli populations centers,” Bush wrote, “it is unrealistic to expect that the outcome of final status negotiations will be a full and complete return to the armistice lines of 1949.”

When President Obama rejected the terms of that letter, he not only damaged relations with Israel, but reinforced Palestinian delusions and helped ensure the failure of his peace initiatives. By reaffirming Bush’s statement, Trump can squelch the Palestinian expectation that the United States, UN, EU or some foreign entity will force Israel to withdraw to what are incorrectly referred to as the pre-1967 borders.

As in the case of recognizing Jerusalem, affirming that peace must take into account that demographic realities in the West Bank have changed, would be a statement of the obvious. Just as Israel will not evacuate Jerusalem, it will also not dismantle the large settlement blocs that are home to tens of thousands of Jews. It is nevertheless important to put the Palestinians and the international community on notice that the United States has no intention of forcing Israel, or allowing others to coerce Israel’s leaders, to withdraw from Gush EtzionMa’ale Adumim or other major Jewish communities. At the same time, it is reasonable for Trump to express the expectation that Israel will be prepared to take risks for peace and make territorial compromises in exchange for secure and defensible borders beyond the armistice line.

Given their long history of rejecting peace, or any semblance of compromise, there is little reason to expect the Palestinians to accept reality. But the hope is that over time, the Palestinian people will tire of the empty rhetoric of their leaders and the self-defeating violence they instigate. With President Trump’s help, perhaps they will abandon their unrealistic goals. Only then will peace be possible.

In the meantime, Trump must be vigilant to ensure that his bureaucratic opponents do not sabotage his initiative. He should also pressure our allies to join in recognizing Jerusalem, and moving their embassies. If these countries are truly interested in avoiding violence and advancing peace, they will follow Trump’s lead, rather than giving the Palestinians the false hope that the international community will support their unreasonable demands.

Dr. Mitchell Bard is the author/editor of 24 books including the 2017 edition of “Myths and Facts: A Guide to the Arab-Israeli Conflict,” “The Arab Lobby,” and the novel “After Anatevka: Tevye in Palestine.”

As taken from, https://www.algemeiner.com/2017/12/08/recognizing-jerusalem-is-the-first-step-toward-peace/

Jerusalem: 10 Essential Facts

Jerusalem: 10 Essential Facts

A quick primer about Israel’s capital and largest city.

by StandwithUs.com

1. Jerusalem is the capital of the modern State of Israel. Jews are indigenous to Jerusalem and the rest of the country, having maintained a continuous, unbroken presence in the land of Israel for over 3,000 years. Since King David made the city his capital in the 10th century BCE, Jerusalem has been the geographic center of the Jewish people. For centuries it was the capital city of Jewish kingdoms, the location of Judaism’s holiest sites, and the historical focus of Jewish political life. Jewish and Jerusalem’s histories are so interwoven as to constitute a single story.

2. Jerusalem is so central to Jewish culture and civilization that memory of its destruction by imperial Rome (depicted on the Arch of Titus, which is located in Rome) and hope for sovereign restoration are included in numerous Jewish customs and holidays. The breaking of the wine glass at weddings while reciting in Hebrew, “If I forget you, Oh Jerusalem, may my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth,” memorializes Jerusalem’s destruction, as does the Jewish holiday Tisha B’Av – a fast day of mourning. The Western Wall is the last standing remnant of the Jewish Temple, the holiest site for Jews.

3. Jerusalem is also of great importance for Christianity and Islam, containing holy sites held in deep reverence by billions of people around the world. For Christians these include the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, the Garden Tomb, and the Garden of Gethsemane. For Muslims these include the Dome of the Rock and Al Aqsa Mosque,

which is the third holiest mosque in Islam after the mosques of al-Haram in Mecca and al-Nabawi in Medina.

4. No Arab or Muslim power ever claimed Jerusalem as its capital. Over the centuries, Jerusalem has been ruled by various invading empires. Other than the Crusaders, the rulers made their capitals Caesarea, Damascus, Baghdad, Cairo, and Constantinople, not Jerusalem.

5. After Israel declared independence on May 14, 1948, the Arab Legion of Jordan, commanded by British officers, attacked Jewish Jerusalem. After bitter fighting, the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem’s Old City fell on May 27 to the Arab Legion’s vastly superior arms and numbers. The Jordanians evicted all the Jews from the Old City and other neighborhoods, which were then looted by Palestinians. For the next 18 years, Jerusalem was a city divided by mine fields and barbed wire.

6. Jordan occupied the eastern sector of Jerusalem until 1967. This was the only time in over a thousand years (since the Crusader Kingdoms) that Jews were prohibited from living in Jerusalem’s Old City. The Jordanians destroyed and looted nearly 60 Jewish synagogues, some centuries old, turning many into animal stalls or latrines. The 2,500-year-old Jewish cemetery on the Mt. of Olives was vandalized and thousands of ancient tombstones were shattered and used for building materials. Jordan built the Intercontinental Hotel on the cemetery and paved the hotel’s access road over ancient Jewish graves.

7. During the Jordanian occupation, Christians, unlike Jews, were allowed access to their holy sites but with limits on the numbers of Christian pilgrims permitted into the Old City and Bethlehem during Christmas and Easter. Christian charities and religious institutions were prohibited from buying real estate in Jerusalem. Christian schools were subject to strict controls, including being required to teach the Qu’ran to all the students.

8. During the 1967 Six-Day War, following unprovoked attacks by Jordan against Israel, Israel’s army liberated Jerusalem’s Old City from Jordan, finding the Jewish Quarter completely neglected and virtually destroyed. Since 1967, under Israeli control, members of all faiths have enjoyed full religious freedom and access to their holy sites in Jerusalem. There are over 50 churches and 33 mosques operating freely in Jerusalem today. The same cannot be said of Jerusalem under any other sovereignty over the centuries.

9. Jews became a plurality of Jerusalem’s population in the early 1800s and have been a majority since 1864, a generation before the Zionist movement’s founding. Before 1948, substantial Jewish communities lived in both eastern and western Jerusalem. In 1967 the Jewish population was 197,000, and the Palestinian Arab population was 68,000. Today, the population is about 500,000 Jews and 300,000 Palestinians.

10. Jerusalem is Israel’s largest city at nearly 50 square miles. It has become a major cultural center with over 70 institutions teaching the arts, some 60 museums, over 30 annual festivals, an annual marathon, 26 wineries, and over 1,500 public parks and gardens. All of these are visited by some 3.5 million tourists per year.

As taken from, http://www.aish.com/jw/j/Jerusalem-10-Essential-Facts.html?s=mpw

Jerusalem: Stating the Obvious

Jerusalem: Stating the Obvious

I greeted the diplomatic news with a shrug.

by Rabbi Shraga Simmons

The definition of “double standard” is declaring the capital city of just one country – of the 193 United Nations member states – “invalid.”

Compounding the absurdity is that this particular city – Jerusalem, dedicated 4,000 years ago by Abraham – predates every other capital city on the planet.

As British parliamentarian Benjamin Disraeli quipped when targeted by an anti-Semitic slur: “When my ancestors were priests in the Temple of Solomon, yours were brutal savages on an unknown island.”

Imagine the absurdity of UN Resolution 2334, stating that Israel’s presence in Jerusalem is illegal. Would anyone seriously suggest to disconnect Christianity from the Vatican or Islam from Mecca?

Jerusalem is referenced 640 times in the Jewish Bible, crowned the eternal capital of Israel by King David over 3,000 years ago. Jews, wherever dispersed around the globe, yearn for Jerusalem at every Jewish wedding, Passover Seder, and daily prayers.

“Next year, an American Embassy in Jerusalem” was never part of our lexicon, Shmuel Rosner quipped in a New York Times op-ed.

So upon hearing the news of the US government implementing US law, the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995, I merely shrugged my shoulders, as did many people in Israel.

Is acknowledging a basic fact of history suddenly “earth-shattering news”?

Why is acknowledging a basic fact of history, correcting a historic injustice, expressing the obvious, and refusing to deny reality, suddenly deemed “earth-shattering news”?

Does anyone think that the Jewish people, who survived Inquisitions and Holocaust, have returned to our land in order to be cowered by violent and diplomatic threats? Have we become so accustomed to vilification of the Jewish State, surviving on the fickle goodwill of other nations, that achieving normalization is a cause for celebration?

Yet such is our topsy-turvy world. In such a world, crass politics, delusion, and anti-Semitic hatred is directed against the city most emblematic of humanity’s greatest truths and yearnings, the city of priests and prophets, a light of transcendence which taught the world “Love your neighbor.”

In response, Arabs promise more “days of rage” and pundits predict regional conflagration. Yet does anyone truly believe that ISIS, Hezbollah, Hamas, and nuclear Iran are secondary issues – while the obvious truth of Jewish Jerusalem will “set the Middle East ablaze”?

Why Jerusalem?

Denial of Jewish connection to Jerusalem is fueled by those who seek to destroy the Jewish State. That is why, in an attempt to airbrush the past, everyone from the Babylonians to Romans, Crusaders and Jordanians, have expelled the Jews from Jerusalem and destroyed its holy sites.

This denial of Jewish Jerusalem persists today. In the words of Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas, the Jewish people “claim that 2,000 years ago they had a Temple. I challenge the claim that this is so.” The Palestine News Network pushed the line that “the Wailing [Western] Wall is an integral part of the al-Aqsa Mosque, and it is exclusively Islamic… and non-Muslims have no right to it, even to the dust of the Wailing Wall.” Speaking on Palestinian TV, researcher Dr. Hayel Sanduqa claimed that the well-known verse from Psalm 137, “If I forget thee, oh Jerusalem,” is not a Jewish source at all, but rather words uttered by a Christian Crusader, now “falsified in the name of Zionism.”

Jerusalem embodies a vision of our perfected world.

And the mainstream media is frequently complicit. London’s Daily Telegraph referred to “the Temple Mount, where the two Jewish temples of antiquity are believed to have been built,” and Time magazine identified the “Dome of the Rock, where Jews believe Solomon and Herod built the First and Second Temples.” Not an indisputable fact of history; just something that “Jews believe.”

In referring to the Temple Mount, Associated Press, New York TimesLos Angeles Times, et al, typically cite the Muslim-Arabic name – “Haram al-Sharif, the Noble Sanctuary.” But in tens of thousands of mainstream news articles, did you ever once see the Temple Mount referred to by its Hebrew name, “Har Habayit”?

A final irony: The den of anti-Semitism, United Nations headquarters in New York, bear on its walls the words of Isaiah: “They will beat their swords into plowshares.” Yet let us not forget the verse immediately preceding: “For out of Zion shall go forth Torah, and the word of God from Jerusalem.”

Jerusalem embodies the Jewish vision of a perfected world, humanity’s best hope for peace.

Diplomatic developments aside, it is a vision we surrender at our peril.

As taken from, http://www.aish.com/jw/me/Jerusalem-Stating-the-Obvious.html?s=mpw

The Conflict in Jerusalem Is Distinctly Modern: Here’s the History

An aerial view of Jerusalem’s Old City. CreditAriel Schalit/Associated Press

In December 1917 — 100 years ago this month — the British general Edmund Allenby seized control of Jerusalem from its Ottoman Turkish defenders. Dismounting his horse, he entered the Old City on foot, through Jaffa Gate, out of respect for its holy status.

In the century since, Jerusalem has been fought over in varying ways, not only by Jews, Christians and Muslims but also by external powers and, of course, modern-day Israelis and Palestinians.

It is perhaps fitting that President Trump appears to have chosen this week to announce that the United States will recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, despite concerns from leaders of Arab countriesTurkey and even close allies like France.

Conflicts over Jerusalem go back thousands of years — including biblical times, the Roman Empire and the Crusades — but the current one is a distinctly 20th-century story, with roots in colonialism, nationalism and anti-Semitism. The New York Times asked several experts to walk readers through pivotal moments of the past century.

1917-48: British Mandate

British soldiers awaiting the arrival of Gen. Edmund Allenby at Jaffa Gate in 1917. 
CreditCulture Club/Getty Images
Palestinian prisoners in the Old City of Jerusalem during the British Mandate. 
CreditFox Photos, via Getty Images
The British authorities deported Jewish immigrants from Haifa in 1947. 
CreditPinn Hans/Agence France-Press – Getty Images
Haganah fighters in Jerusalem in April 1948. CreditIsraeli Government
Press Office, via Getty Images

“It was for the British that Jerusalem was so important — they are the ones who established Jerusalem as a capital,” said Prof. Yehoshua Ben-Arieh, a historical geographer at Hebrew University. “Before, it was not anyone’s capital since the times of the First and Second Temples.

The three decades of British rule that followed Allenby’s march on Jerusalem saw an influx of Jewish settlers drawn by the Zionist vision of a Jewish homeland, while the local Arab population adjusted to the reality of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, which had ruled the city since 1517.

“Paradoxically, Zionism recoiled from Jerusalem, particularly the Old City,” said Amnon Ramon, senior researcher at the Jerusalem Institute for Policy Research. “First because Jerusalem was regarded as a symbol of the diaspora, and second because the holy sites to Christianity and Islam were seen as complications that would not enable the creation of a Jewish state with Jerusalem as its capital.”

Many early Zionists were secular European socialists, motivated more by concerns about nationalism, self-determination and escape from persecution than by religious visions.

“Jerusalem was something of a backwater, a regression to a conservative culture that they were trying to move away from,” according to Michael Dumper, professor in Middle East politics at the University of Exeter in England. “Tel Aviv was the bright new city on a hill, the encapsulation of modernity.”

For Arabs, he said: “There was still something of the shock at not being in the Ottoman Empire. There was a reordering of their society. The local Palestinian aristocracy, the big families of Jerusalem, emerged as leaders of the Palestinian national movement, which was suddenly being confronted by Jewish migration.”

Opposition to that migration fueled several deadly riots by Palestinians, while Jews chafed at British rule and at immigration restrictions imposed in 1939 — restrictions that blocked many Jews fleeing the Holocaust from entering. After the war, in 1947, the United Nations approved a partition plan that provided for two states — one Jewish, one Arab — with Jerusalem governed by a “special international regime” owing to its unique status.

1948-67: A Divided City

David Ben-Gurion reading Israel’s Declaration of Independence on
May 14, 1948, in Tel Aviv. CreditZoltan Kluger/Israeli Government
Press Office, via Getty Images
Damaged buildings in Ben Yehuda Street in central Jerusalem after car
bombs in February 1948. CreditHugo H. Mendelsohn/Agence France-Presse
— Getty Images
Palestinians in Jerusalem leaving the Jewish sector to go to Arab
territory around 1948. CreditThree Lions/Getty Images
Jews leaving a section of Jerusalem’s old city in 1948.
CreditJohn Phillips/The LIFE Picture Collection, via Getty Images

The Arabs rejected the partition plan, and a day after Israel proclaimed its independence in 1948, the Arab countries attacked the new state. They were defeated. Amid violence by militias and mobs on both sides, huge numbers of Jews and Arabs were displaced.

Jerusalem was divided: The western half became part of the new state of Israel (and its capital, under an Israeli law passed in 1950), while the eastern half, including the Old City, was occupied by Jordan. “For the Palestinians, it was seen as a rallying point,” Professor Dumper said.

Israel and Jordan, he said, were largely focused elsewhere. Israel built up its prosperous coastal areas — including Haifa, Tel Aviv and Ashkelon — into a thriving commercial zone, while the Jordanian king, Abdullah I, focused on the development of Amman, Jordan’s capital.

The early Israeli state was hesitant to focus too much on Jerusalem, given pressure from the United Nations and from the European powers, according to Issam Nassar, a historian at Illinois State University.

Having accepted the idea of international control of Jerusalem, the early Israeli leadership sought alternatives for a capital, perhaps Herzliya or somewhere in the south. They also realized that not having control of Jerusalem’s holy sites might have some advantages, according to Dr. Ramon.

While Israel moved many government functions to Jerusalem during the country’s first two decades, foreign governments largely avoided Jerusalem and opened embassies in Tel Aviv, in recognition of the United Nations resolution.

1967-93: Two Wars and an Intifada

Israeli soldiers at the Aqsa Mosque during the Arab-Israeli War of 1967. 
CreditGilles Caron/Gamma-Rapho, via Getty Images
After Israel seized East Jerusalem in 1967, its soldiers carried a
confiscated portrait of King Hussein of Jordan. CreditLeonard Freed/Magnum Photos
A wall dividing East and West Jerusalem, near the Damascus Gate, in 1967. 
CreditMicha Bar-Am/Magnum Photos
Palestinians and Israelis clashing in Jerusalem in 1993. 
CreditMenahem Kahana/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

No event has shaped the modern contest over Jerusalem as much as the Arab-Israeli War of 1967, in which Israel not only defeated invading Arab armies but also seized control of the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt; the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan; and the Golan Heights from Syria.

“The turning points in 1967 were two: the great victory, including the fast shift from fears of defeat before the war to euphoria and the feeling that everything was possible, and the emotional impact of occupying the Old City,” said Menachem Klein, a political scientist at Bar-Ilan University in Israel.

Images of Israeli soldiers praying at the Western Wall, to which they had been denied access during Jordanian rule, became seared into Israel’s national consciousness.

“Jerusalem became the center of a cultlike devotion that had not really existed previously,” said Rashid Khalidi, a professor of modern Arab studies at Columbia University. “This has now been fetishized to an extraordinary degree as hard-line religious nationalism has come to predominate in Israeli politics, with the Western Wall as its focus.”

The victory of the right-leaning party Likud in 1977, under the leadership of Menachem Begin, helped solidify this new emphasis on Jerusalem as integral to Israel’s identity. Religious settlers became more prominent in political life in Israel, beginning a long ascendance that has never really halted. Old-line socialists with roots in Russia and Eastern Europe gave way to a more diverse — and also more religious — population of Israelis with origins in the Middle East, North Africa and other regions.

As part of this shift, Jerusalem’s symbolic importance intensified. Its role in Jewish history was emphasized in military parades and curriculums, and students from across Israel were taken there on school visits. This process culminated in 1980, when lawmakers passed a bill declaring that “Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel” — although Israel stopped short of annexing East Jerusalem, a move that would most likely have drawn international outrage.

1993-present: Oslo and Beyond

Israeli soldiers refusing Palestinians entry into Jerusalem from the West Bank in 2016. 
CreditDaniel Berehulak for The New York Times
Palestinians hurling shoes at the Israeli police at the Aqsa Mosque in 2001,
during the second intifada. CreditGetty Images
The scene after a Palestinian suicide bomber blew himself up in
West Jerusalem in 2001. CreditGetty Images
Construction work in a Jewish settlement in the mainly Palestinian
eastern sector of Jerusalem in November. 
CreditAhmad Gharabli/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

The 1993 Oslo accords provided for the creation of a Palestinian Authority to govern the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, while deferring a resolution on core issues: borders, refugees and Jerusalem’s status. In the nearly quarter-century since, the prospects for a lasting peace deal have seemed ever more elusive.

A visit by the right-wing politician Ariel Sharon in 2000 to the sacred complex known to Jews as the Temple Mount and to Muslims as the Noble Sanctuary — which contains Al Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock — set off violent clashes and led to a second Palestinian uprising that claimed the lives of about 3,000 Palestinians and 1,000 Israelis over five years.

Palestinians say that Jewish settlers have encroached on East Jerusalem, and that Israel has compounded the problem by revoking residency permits. Even so, the ethnic composition of Jerusalem’s population has remained about 30 percent to 40 percent Arab.

“The entire international community has been in accord that Israeli annexation and settlement of East Jerusalem since 1967 is illegal, and refuses to recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital,” Professor Khalidi said. “If Trump changes this position, given the importance of Jerusalem to Arabs and Muslims, it is hard to see how a sustainable Palestinian-Israeli agreement or lasting Arab-Israeli normalization is possible.”

Professor Ben-Arieh says the conflict over the city is likely to endure. “The Arab-Jewish conflict escalated into a nationalistic conflict, with Jerusalem at its center,” he said. “Jerusalem was a city holy to three religions, but the moment that, in the land of Israel, two nations grew — the Jewish people and the local Arab people — both embraced Jerusalem. More than Jerusalem needed them, they needed Jerusalem.”

As taken from, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/05/world/middleeast/jerusalem-history-peace-deal.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&clickSource=story-heading&module=first-column-region&region=top-news&WT.nav=top-news

Por qué El Judaísmo es una Mala Idea

Porqué El Judaísmo es una Mala Idea

En un baile uno tiene dos opciones: baila o mira la gente bailar. Si uno opta por bailar entonces uno se sumerge en la experiencia de la música, se mueve incluso sin importar si está siendo coherente con el ritmo y se entrega a la fluidez del acontecimiento que está sucediendo. Si por el contrario decide mirar a la gente bailar y observar lo que están haciendo uno puede apreciar lo ridículo que puede ser ver seres humanos moverse con los ojos cerrados y sonreír al compás de frecuencias y ritmos. Este ejemplo nos enseña la diferencia fundamental entre vivir una experiencia y el pensar o reflexionar de qué se trata esa misma experiencia.

Vivir una experiencia y pensar lo que esa experiencia significa no es exactamente lo mismo. Vivir la experiencia genera acercamiento pasional, nos conmueve, imprime una marca en nuestros sentimientos que alimentan también nuestro intelecto. Por el contrario, pensar lo que una experiencia significa genera distancia, perspectiva objetiva y analítica en lugar de empatía y acercamiento; también alimenta nuestro intelecto pero si bien puede conmovernos en nuestra racionalidad, nunca logrará emocionarnos ni cautivarnos del todo como lo hace el vivir una experiencia. Al fin de cuentas vivir la experiencia y pensar el significado de esa experiencia son las dos una experiencia en sí misma: la experiencia del hacer y la experiencia del pensar. Necesitamos de ambas para desarrollar nuestra integridad.

Pero la gran diferencia entre la indiferencia, el sarcasmo o absurdo sobre todas las cosas que hacemos los humanos radica entre la práctica experimental y el pensamiento abstracto de la misma cosa. Por ejemplo, el judaísmo genera en mí lo que otras tradiciones no judías no generan por el hecho que experimento y vivo mi vida a la luz de los textos, ideas y prácticas de mi pueblo y no solo pienso sobre estos temas. Cuando estudio otras tradiciones religiosas y no religiosas del mundo me fascino y alimento mi intelecto. Realmente y como lo saben leo de todo y estudio todo lo que se cruza en mi camino. Así me relaciono y pienso acerca del significado de otras tradiciones más allá de la mía, analizo sus símbolos, enseñanzas y costumbres. Pero en el judaísmo hago todo esto y por sobre todo además lo vivo y experimento. Es por eso que el judaísmo para mí no es una idea. Es una experiencia.

El judaísmo es una mala idea

El judaísmo es una mala idea porque justamente no es “una idea”. Es una experiencia. Solamente como experiencia funciona realmente bien cuando las ideas que lo mueven son experimentadas. Como una idea en sí misma nunca lograr conmovernos del todo ni tener el sentido que buscamos. Logrará interesarnos pero no emocionarnos.

Pensemos por ejemplo en ShabatShabat es una experiencia, no es una idea. Si lo hago una idea entonces entro en las discusiones del tipo “yo descanso jugando al golf en Shabat”. Al decir algo así lo que hice no es experimentar Shabat sino convertirlo en una abstracción, en una idea y acomodarlo a lo que a mi me gusta y me queda cómodo. Hacer esto último no es bueno o malo. Es simplemente cambiar la experiencia del Shabat por la idea de pensar acerca de lo que sería la idea de experimentar Shabat y luego imaginar que lo que estoy experimentando es Shabat cuando lo que estoy experimentando en realidad es un juego de golf. Debemos entender que hay un brecha entre ir a jugar al golf en Shabat y estar toda la semana pensando qué voy a comer el viernes por la noche, a quienes voy a invitar y sobre qué temas quiero conversar, con qué kavana (intención del corazón) voy a encender las velas el viernes con la puesta del sol agradeciendo el misterio de la luz y la energía co-creadora del ser humano, rezar la tefilá de Kabalat Shabat dándole la bienvenida a un tiempo diferente que me hago en la semana para escucharme un poco dentro de la vorágine de mi vida, recitar el kidush bendiciendo el tiempo a través del vino que en alegría consagra la vida, bendecir el pan que agradece la comida que tenemos en la posibilidad de alimentar el alma para nutrir nuestro espíritu y compartirlo con otras personas queridas, bendecir a mis hijos, cantar canciones, conversar sobre temas profundos, desconectarme un poco de la tecnología de toda la semana para experimentar el silencio y el amor de los más cercanos luego de una semana de caras extrañas y ruidos, levantarme temprano al otro día por la mañana y nuevamente rezar agradeciendo la posibilidad de respirar, estudiar algo que me desafía, comer, dormir un rato y compartir tiempo cualitativo sin entretenimiento enlatado en pantallas. Finalmente concluir ese día con havdalah (ceremonia de separación y distinción del tiempo) y prepararme así para una renovada y recargada semana. Eso es una experiencia de Shabat.

De la misma forma si les digo que piensen en un día del perdón sería muy difícil hacerlo sin experimentar Iom Kipur. No es lo mismo pensar que somos libres y lo que eso significa que experimentar un Seder de Pesaj en familia y amigos. Todo es así con el judaísmo y con las tradiciones en tanto su experiencia y la reflexión sobre el significado de ellas. No podemos conocer nada en profundidad si lo hacemos a la distancia. Ni a una persona, ni a Dios y menos al judaísmo. Necesitamos sumergirnos en la experiencia. Como diría Heschel en su libro Dios en la Búsqueda del Hombre, “Las ideas de fe no deben estudiarse en una separación total de los momentos de fe. Si una planta es desarraigada de su suelo, separada de sus vientos nativos, rayos de sol y ambiente terrestre y mantenida en un invernadero, ¿las observaciones hechas de tal planta revelarán su naturaleza primordial? La creciente interioridad del hombre que alcanza y se curva hacia la luz de Dios difícilmente puede trasplantarse a la superficialidad de la mera reflexión. Retirada de su medio en la vida humana se marchita como una rosa presionada entre las páginas de un libro.

 

Más allá de lo permitido y lo prohibido

En resumen el judaísmo no puede solo ser discutido y pensado. Debe ser vivido y experimentado. Pero esto no quiere decir que lo judío se experimenta solamente a través de la halaja y todo lo de más no es una experiencia judía. Justamente la diferencia entre mi posición y abordaje con respecto a otros abordajes es que creo profundamente en la importancia de lo abstracto y lo práctico. No solamente la práctica por la práctica y muchos menos una vida de prácticas y experiencias sin una capacidad reflexiva.

Ser judío no es una experiencia de una o dos veces al año. Sucede día a día al definir las decisiones que hacemos como judíos en nuestra visión política, religiosa, cultural y teológica y que nos acompaña a cada instante en nuestra continua y evolutiva identidad y pertenencia.

El judaísmo no es una idea. No es una abstracción. No existe sin los judíos. El judaísmo es una experiencia y esa experiencia son los judíos y cómo deciden vivir día a día.

Read more at http://www.judiosyjudaismo.com/2017/11/porque-el-judaismo-es-una-mala-idea/#pI9Tdhxp7RSJIHFP.99

Cuándo y Cómo Estar Tristes

Por Yanki Tauber

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Un hombre está bailando en la boda de su hijo único. Él es buen bailarín, pero nunca antes, y nunca más en el transcurso de su vida, volverá a bailar con la misma gracia y expresividad que expresa ahora. De hecho, todas sus aptitudes, capacidades y atributos están en su cenit: su mente está más lúcida que nunca, sus amores y sus odios están en su punto más apasionado; ponga un pincel en su mano, y él le pintará un cuadro que demuestre el máximo de su potencial artístico.

Los maestros Jasidicos utilizan esta parábola para demostrar su definición de la “alegría”: La alegría es revelación. La alegría revela potenciales latentes de los que nadie sabía de su existencia y amplifica potenciales revelados a niveles que nadie creía alcanzables. La alegría es la efusión del ser, que se derrama por encima de lugares y logros, más allá de los horizontes naturales del alma.

Si la alegría es la revelación y expansión del alma, entonces el dolor, en contraste, es su ocultación y contracción. En dolor el alma se retrae, silenciando toda expresión exterior, reduciéndose a la partícula más estrecha del propio ser.

No es sorprendente, entonces, que las enseñanzas Jasídicas, vean negativamente la tristeza. Un viejo refrán Jasídico dice: “la tristeza no es un pecado, pero su efecto sobre la persona es peor al de cualquier pecado”. El alma fue enviada a este mundo no para “ser”, sino para hacer; no para simplemente existir, sino para lograr. Retraerse en uno mismo es lo contrario al flujo de la vida.

No obstante, hay épocas en las cuales debemos estar tristes. La recitación diaria del Shema en la cama (keriat shema she’al ha-mitah) es una de esas ocasiones: la culminación del día es una oportunidad de examinar la conciencia, un momento para experimentar pesar y remordimiento sobre las fallas y oportunidades perdidas del día. Una vez al mes, en Erev Rosh Jodesh (“Víspera del Nuevo Mes“), el proceso se repite en una escala mayor, abarcando el mes que se acerca a su cierre. Y así también ocurre en los ayunos y los  “días del reflexión” .Actualmente, nos encontramos en el período más doloroso del calendario judío, las “tres semanas”, en las que estamos de luto por  la destrucción del santo Templo en Jerusalén.

Porque sin estos momentos de dolor, nuestra alegría fluiría incorrectamente. El más minúsculo desliz en la fuente se convertiría en una discrepancia mayor río abajo, llegando a ser cada vez más falso a medida que la trayectoria siga sin corregir. Nuestras vidas serian cada vez más erráticas y difusas, eventualmente evaporándose por completo. Ése es el porqué es crucial que, en ocasiones, enderecemos el flujo, retornando a la fuente para hacer los ajustes y las revisiones necesarios.

Por supuesto, siempre existe el peligro que la introspección se convierta en una aprieto, un agujero negro que lo arrastra más y más adentro, no permitiendo ningún escape. Si la alegría tiene sus peligros, el sufrimiento es mucho más peligroso aun.

Ésta, es entonces, la solución: la proporción debe ser prescrita — una hora diaria, un día mensual, unos veinte días a lo largo del año — y el dolor quedara confinado dentro de estos límites. Debe ser una búsqueda activa, nunca un hundimiento pasivo. Y siempre, se debe el dolor estar impregnado del conocimiento de su propósito real: servir como herramienta de la alegría.

Según tomado de, http://es.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/539795/jewish/Cundo-y-Cmo-Estar-Tristes.htm